Although individuals may react differently to colors based on personal preferences and unique life experiences, numerous studies confirm that the majority of people often make certain color associations, such as:

  • Black – powerful, strong, commanding
  • Gray – conventional, elegant
  • White – pure, precise
  • Red – aggressive, dominant, dynamic, passionate
  • Orange – distressing, stimulating, exciting
  • Yellow – cheerful, stimulating
  • Green – refreshing, natural, calming
  • Blue – calming, comforting, soothing

Because color symbolism is often very culture-specific, these attributes can vary in different areas of the world. But psychological messages of color can be an important consideration, especially in business settings.